Maintenance of Homeostasis in Ecological Systems

Homeostasis is maintained through negative feedbacks. As changes in the environment push a system property from its equilibrium, negative feedbacks counteract the Figure 1 Changes in environment can have large effects or almost no effect on system properties, depending on the operation of homeostatic mechanisms. The top panel shows a hypothetical change in environment through time. The panel starts at zero change in the environment then exhibits a strong shift away and return to average...

SeaWorld Killer Whale Lives Up to its Name; Attacks and Kills Trainer

Living in captivity is not all it's cracked up to be. Imagine bright flashing lights, being confined to the same small tank day in and day out, and having to perform ridiculous tricks for the entertainment of others. All you get out of it is some stinking fish. Yeah, I'd feel like I got a pretty raw deal, too. Tilikum the killer whale seems to feel the same way. Yesterday, Tilikum attacked and killed a trainer at the Orlando-based SeaWorld.

15 Festive Types of Christmas Tree for a Magical Holiday Season

The holiday season is upon us, and finding the perfect Christmas tree can make all the difference in creating a warm, festive atmosphere in your home. But with so many types of Christmas tree varieties to choose from, how do you know which one is right for you From classic options like fir trees to unconventional alternatives, we've got you covered. In this guide, we'll explore the top 15 festive types of Christmas trees to help you make an informed decision and ensure a magical holiday season.

Energy Subsidy

High rates of production in both natural and cultivated ecosystems occur when physical factors, such as water, nutrients, and climate, are favorable, and especially when energy subsidies (such as fertilizers) from outside the system enhance growth or rates of reproduction within the system. Secondary energy that supplements the sun and allows plants to store and pass on more photosynthate is called auxiliary energy flow or energy subsidy. Such energy subsidies may also be the work of wind and...

What Do Koalas Eat? Facts About The Koala Bear And More!

This article aims to cover important koala questions, such as What do koalas eat What do koalas look like What do baby koalas eat Do koalas eat bamboo What do koalas drink Where do koalas live We have also listed some amazing koala facts that you might haven't heard of yet so keep reading Before we answer the question about koala's diet, let's begin with some basic information about this cuddly animal.

Brief History of Landscape Ecology

Landscape ecology is a young but well-recognized ecological discipline dealing with the spatial distribution of organisms, patterns, and processes. This discipline developed after the Second World War in central and eastern Europe as an applied science used to manage the countryside. It became popular as a basic science, especially in the US, only during the last two decades. The theoretical and empirical bodies of this discipline are growing fast but not in a unified fashion (Wu and Hobbs...

Starbucks Discontinues Its Swiss Water Decaf Blend

Starbucks' Komodo Dragon Decaf Blend is wholly an Asia Pacific coffee deep, full-bodied with a complex flavour that is bold and unanticipated. And as it employs the completely natural, Swiss Water Process this rich, earthy blend is the favourite amongst pregnant coffee drinkers. And it has been discontinued. Starbucks no longer offers a Swiss Water decaf blend. A note from Starbucks Customer Relations Starbucks will no longer be offering our Decaf Komodo Dragon BlendT coffee.

7 Tips to Protect Yourself from Delhi's Air Pollution

Delhi's air quality index has remained in the red zone ever since the festive rush started. Now, with crop burning in the neighboring states and heavy vehicular pollution in the NCR, the smog has become a real threat to public health. Most Delhiites are experiencing health problems like uneasy breathing, nausea, and headaches. So, it is time to take some protective action before the smog can further affect our health and fitness.

The Role of Environmental Education in Creating Eco-Conscious Students

Environmental education empowers students to become proactive change agents. By nurturing leadership skills, fostering collaboration, and promoting innovation, students emerge as influential advocates for environmental causes. Engaging in student-led initiatives, organizing awareness campaigns, and participating in environmental summits amplify their voices and catalyze impactful change within their communities and beyond.

Dispersal dispersion and distribution

7.1 Introduction This chapter explores some of the reasons why populations are found where they are. We describe the finer-scaled pattern as the dispersion and the broader scale as the distribution. We offer examples of how different factors such as temperature and seasonality limit the distribution of wildlife. We then discuss the causes for dispersal, and finally methods of modeling rates of dispersal of populations. Dispersal is the movement an individual animal makes from its place of birth...

Theories to Explain High Diversity in the Tropics

The question, Why are there so many species in the tropics is one that has intrigued scientists for almost a century. Scores of theories have been put forth to account for the increase in diversity in almost all taxa along a gradient of decreasing latitude. Pianka (1966) reviewed the major theories of the time and lumped them into six categories the time theory the theory of climatic stability the theory of spatial heterogeneity the competition hypothesis the predation hypothesis and the...

DIY Wind Turbine Guide: Finding the Perfect Motor

When it comes to building a DIY wind turbine, choosing the right motor is essential for optimal performance and efficiency. A suitable motor can make a significant difference in the power output and overall effectiveness of your homemade wind turbine. By carefully considering these factors and the type of motor, you can build a highly efficient and effective DIY wind turbine that meets your energy needs.

What Do Frogs Eat? Feeding Your Pet Frog

What do frogs eat Almost every kid in the world when given half a chance to bring a frog home as a pet will stuff it in their pocket and bring it home to surprise mom and dad. If you're going to keep a frog as a pet, it is important to know what kind of food it needs to stay healthy and grow into an adult frog. Whether you found yours at the local pond or from a pet store, it is important to create the right habitat and provide suitable food.

Toxicological Endpoints

Toxicological endpoints are values derived from toxicity tests that are the results of specific measurements made during or at the conclusion of the test. Two broad categories of endpoints widely used are assessment and measures of effect. Assessment endpoints refer to the population, community, or ecosystem parameters that are to be protected (e.g., population growth rate, sustainable yield). Measures of effect refer to the variables measured, often at the individual level, that are used to...

Monogamy polygamy and promiscuity

There are five basic types of animal mating systems (Table 6.1). Monogamy involves a pair-bond between one male and one female, whereas in polygamy, which includes polygyny, polyandry and polygynandry, social bonds involve multiple males and or females. Promiscuity refers to the practice of mating in the absence of any social ties. Note that many species will adopt two or more different mating systems, and the examples used throughout this text are not meant to imply that a particular species...

Challenges Facing Ecologists in Florida

There are not many people these days who deny that the planet is facing a very tough future partly down to the actions of the human race over centuries. But there are regions of the world where the threat seems to be more immediate. Many of these are in the developing world but there are places closer to home that are also already experiencing severe ecological challenges. The south of the United States is seen by many as a great place to retire.

Removing Iron Salts

The treatment for removing dissolved iron salts usually involves (1) oxidation by air, chlorine, or ozone followed by filtration (2) chemical precipitation followed by filtration or (3) ion exchange. The capacity of the treatment plant, the pH of the water, and the presence of other contaminants determine which process is the most economical. Iron is usually removed more readily than iron and manganese together. The removal of dissolved iron chelated to organic compounds is usually accomplished...

Per hour Electricity used by an Air Cooler

One of the main concerns of homeowners during summers is the rise in electricity bills caused by indoor cooling devices like air coolers and air conditioners. When it comes to electricity use, air coolers are much more efficient than air conditioners. But how much can you save with an air cooler Let's find out. Power consumption of air cooler in comparison to air conditioners Most branded air coolers come with a power rating between 125W to 230W.

What Do Kangaroos Eat? The Feeding Of The Famous Australian Animal

We think it's safe to say that all of us know what kangaroos are. Kangaroos have been portrayed on television and in films as big, brown animals who carry their young in their pouches. Which is true for this marsupial from the Macropods family, for they do have pouches in their tummies where they put their babies in but there's more interesting things that one has to know about them. For one, the word Kangaroo is from gangurru, a Guugu Yimithirr word.

Feeding selectivity of the herbivorous zooplankton

It should be noted that strict herbivory, common in terrestrial ecosystems, is not found in zooplankton. Most zooplankton traditionally defined as herbivores are in fact omnivores and also consume protozoa or bacteria if they are in the same size range as their algal food. This widespread omnivory is facilitated by the fact that plant and animal biomass in the plankton differ less in their protein content, C N ratio, and content of refractory structural polymers than animal and plant biomass on...

Microbiological Indicators

Where real-time measures are not essential, or for use in confirming their validity, it is logical to consider monitoring of indicator organisms as surrogates for pathogens themselves. For example, certain bacteria present in feces might be used to indicate the presence of fecal pollution and hence the likelihood that pathogens are present. Other organisms might be appropriate for other purposes, such as for evaluating swimming pools. Because a major public health concern traditionally has been...

What Do Panthers Eat?

A black panther is not a species in its own right the name black panther is an umbrella term that refers to any big cat with a black coat. When a big cat is completely black, it is called melanism'. Melanism is the opposite of albinism. Black Panthers in Asia and Africa are actually leopards, whilst black panthers in the Americas are, in fact, Jaguars.

The Evolutionary Origins Of The Weasels

Weasel Ancestor

Weasels belong to the canoid group of placental carnivores, which originated in the New World (Flynn & Wesley-Hunt 2005). The first predatory mammals with characteristics of the weasel family, and clearly different from their closest relatives the Procyonids (Bininda-Edmonds et al. 1999), appeared in North America in the early Miocene, some 28 to 30 million years ago (Figure 1.4). Throughout the Miocene period, these animals were forest-dwelling hunters, probably somewhat like martens. Some...

Species Diagnoses

Least Weasel Line Drawing

The general weasel appearance is common to all three species Figures 1.9. and 1.10 . The differences among them hinge mainly on size, color, and reproduction Table 1.1 . Size and color are obvious to the eye, so one might think that they would be easily defined and reliable guides. Most of the early taxonomists based their species descriptions on size and color, often using the standard practice of describing whole species or, at any rate, whole populations from one or a few type specimens. But...

What Do Gorillas Eat? Feeding Habits Of A Gorilla

As far as population genetics is concerned, gorillas are considered by scientists as one of the few species of great apes that are closely related to humans. What are great apes by the way What are their differences with monkeys Great apes are monkey relatives but they differ in size, posture, the presence of tails and size of brains. Great apes which include gorillas are larger in size. They are able to walk upright for hours.

What Do Llamas Eat?

Llamas belong to the same family as camels and are classed as Camelidae. They do not have humps to store fat, but like camels, they can go for long periods of time without drinking water. Llamas live in the wild, and as domesticated animals reared on farms, in zoos, and as pets. What do llamas eat can really depend on where they are raised. What do llamas eat Llamas are usually fed grains, grass hay, and herbivore pellets.

The Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods

Mesozoic Landscape

In contrast to the Triassic, the Jurassic period (205-145 mya) was a time of moist climates and luxurious forests. The first flowering of giant dinosaurs began towards the end of the Early Jurassic, and a wealth of dinosaurian fossils has been found in Late Jurassic strata. Indeed, the Late Jurassic was the time during which the largest of the dinosaurs existed. In many ways, the climates of the Cretaceous (145-65 mya) resembled those of the Jurassic, but towards the end of the period the world...

Black Bears in the Oak Forest

Black Bear Distribution

While black bears can and do live in a variety of habitats, they are uniquely adapted to a forest existence. Their sharp, recurved claws make them excellent climbers, and they are often seen feeding high in the tops of oak trees (Pelton 1989). Throughout much of their range, adult females den in trees and give birth to their cubs in tree cavities high off Figure 15.1. Current distribution of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) in North America. Figure 15.1. Current distribution of the...

Distribution and Abundance of Oaks in North America

Ecology Burr Oak

O'BRIEN, GORDON C. REESE, AND KAREN L. WADDELL It is common to hear oak (Quercus L.) referred to as the most important tree genus in North America. The significance of oaks results from their commercial value for timber and as food and cover for wildlife. The classic finding of Van Dersal (1940) that 186 different kinds of birds and mammals feed on oaks and that the distribution of a number of animals coincides with or is dependent on the range of oaks...

Wall cladding with plants

Grape Farming North East 1920s

The environmental qualities achieved by cladding walls with plants are somewhat similar to those of a planted roof, with increased wind and rain protection, extra thermal insulation and sound insulation, and better air quality. There is a certain amount of scepticism as far as plant-clad walls are concerned, based on two main points (1) that plants, especially ivy, eat into the wall, and (2) that leaves can house all sorts of insects which get into the building. Problems with insects have...

The Grime general model for three evolutionary strategies in plants

Grime Competitive Strategy

Grime (1977) developed a life-history model specifically for plants. In this model Grime categorized factors that limit plant biomass or productivity into 1 Stress. Stress is any condition that restricts plant production. Examples would be shortage of light, water, or nutrients, or low temperatures. 2 Disturbance. A disturbance is partial or total loss of plant biomass arising from the activities of herbivores, pathogens, man, or from environmental factors such as wind, frost, desiccation, soil...

Do-It-Yourself Wind Turbine Project 4 Foot Wind Turbine

There are several DIY wind turbine science projects on the internet. This project is appropriate for high school level and was originally sourced from http a very good site, maintained by a couple living off-grid. Their site is definitely worth a look. Another good website to visit for wind turbine projects is http though these turbines can be fairly large.

Point and transect relascope sampling

How Read Relascope

Gove eta . (1999, 2001) describe a wide-angle relascope, an instrument that can be used to estimate CWD volume for woody fragments lying on the ground (Figure 7.2). The method is based on horizontal point sampling (HPS), a method widely used by foresters for estimating the volumes of standing trees, including those that are dead. In HPS, an angle gauge or wedge prism is used to select trees from a given point, with a probability proportional to their stem basal areas (Avery and Burkhart 2002)....

Adaptation of Alien Species to New Environments

Alien species show diverse patterns of evolutionary adaptability when they arrive in new geographical regions. Each has a particular pattern of genetic variability that influences its potential for evolutionary change. In some cases, variability may be very limited due to the small number of individuals in the founding population. Genetic drift in small initial populations may further reduce variability by genetic bottlenecking. The genetic composition of a new population may be a biased sample...

What Do Starfish Eat? The Diet Of The Amazing Sea Stars

The starfish is one of the most popular marine life all over the world. Because of the starfish's star-like appearance, many people have been fascinated to know more about its biology and feeding habits. This article aims to give you information on the types of food that a starfish eat and answers some of the basic questions regarding these amazing creatures, such as What do starfish look like What do starfish eat in the ocean What system helps starfish catch food What do starfish eat in...

Edge characteristics and effects

Edge Ecology

Forested habitats are often distributed as patches within a landscape. The characteristics of the edges of such patches, where they meet other habitat or land-cover types, often differ from those of patch interiors. Characterization of habitat edges has become a major theme in ecological research and, in response to the widespread concern about the impacts of forest fragmentation, has also become important for practical forest conservation and management. Most investigations of edges focus on...

Measuring canopy closure

Canopy Scope

Canopy closure is the proportion of the sky hemisphere obscured by vegetation when viewed from a single point (Jennings et al. 1999). Note the difference between this term and canopy cover, which refers to the proportion of the forest floor covered by the vertical projection of the tree crowns (Figure 4.7) (Jennings et al. 1999). Methods for estimating the latter are presented in section 3.6.4. Canopy closure can be measured by using hemispherical photography, or by a number of other techniques...

Measuring survival and mortality

If information is required on rates of survival and mortality, then individual plants must be permanently tagged, as described above. Mortality can only be assessed by following a cohort of known individuals. Recruitment can only be assessed by re-enumerating the same area at different times (Hall et al. 1998). The finite survival rate is defined as the number of individuals alive at the end of the census period, divided by the number of individuals alive at the beginning. Finite mortality rate...

Uptake and Metabolism of Benzene

P450 Catechol Oxidation

Although benzene readily penetrates biological membranes, it does not seem to accumulate appreciably in plants, fish, and birds. With a bioconcentration factor of 1.1-2.0, it is unlikely that benzene will accumulate in the food chain, such that most concern for oral exposure would be from drinking of contaminated water. Benzene may become incorporated into plants, the majority of which is believed to occur by air-to-leaf transfer rather than root uptake. Vegetative contamination of exposed food...

Lessons Learned by the Architects Skg

The client was willing to put in the time required to realize sustainable goals. The preserve's director was willing to walk the talk. In addition, the staff at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve was committed to designing a building that would minimize its environmental footprint and serve as an educational tool and role model. We would change the process not the design of the building. The design build process didn't always work, especially for the mechanical system. The client would change...

Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology

WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland This edition first published 2010 2010 by John Wiley amp Sons, Ltd Wiley-Blackwell is an imprint of John Wiley amp Sons, formed by the merger of Wiley's global Scientific, Technical and Medical business with Blackwell Publishing. Registered office John Wiley amp Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK Other Editorial Offices 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK...

The Myrosin Cell

Myrosin Plant

Myrosyne was first characterized from Brassica nigra seeds in 1839 by Bussy as a substance analogous to albumine and emulsine, i.e., a protein, necessary for the release of essential oil from mustard seed.23'24 The word myrosyne stems from Greek muron (jiupov), volatile oil, and syn (ctuv), with. This name was derived from Bussy's conclusion that in order to produce the oil, myrosyne had to be together with l'acide myronique, which he isolated as myronate de potasse (sinigrin) from the seeds....

Geology Geomorphology and Geography


Geology, geomorphology, and geography are all scientific disciplines that study the earth. At first glance these three disciplines may seem separate and easily distinguishable from one another. As you read on, however, you will find that the overlap is considerable, and in many instances one cannot be exactly sure of which discipline a particular subject pertains to. Geology is the study of many aspects of the earth, but it does not include meteorology, climatology, oceanography, geochemistry,...

Light and the compensation depth

In the process of photosynthesis the energy of solar radiation becomes fixed as chemical energy in organic compounds. The efficiency of the ocean surface in this energy transformation must vary with locality and conditions, but is probably on average about 0.1-0.5 per cent overall, an efficiency a little lower than that of the land surface. The ability of plants to absorb and utilize light in photochemical reactions is due to their possession of the green pigment chlorophyll and certain other...

Absorption Trains

The Absorption Train

This is perhaps the method which would first occur to you for monitoring trace components. A known volume of gas is bubbled through an absorbing solution. At the end of the sampling period, the solution is taken back to the laboratory for analysis, generally using volumetric or spectrometric methods. Ion chromatog-raphy may also be used. The absorption train consists of a number of containers through which the gas sample is drawn.

How Can Future Oil Spills Be Prevented

Over the last several decades, there have been a number of headline making oil spills that have left the world with shocking images. We have seen the results of drilling in the ocean floors to find oil. We know that our dependency on fossil fuels drives an industry that requires destroying some of our most precious resources.

Pauropus Silvaticus

Soil Ecology

Vertical distribution of astigmatic mites in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. Arrows indicate autumn and spring dates for mowing, tillage, and planting. Numbers increased under conventional tillage following autumn tillage, but not following spring tillage (from Perdue and Crossley, 1990). described a buildup of astigmatic mites following pipeline construction in Ontario, Canada. The mites were associated with accumulations of residue under moist conditions. Philips...

Mollusks Polyplacophorans


The first probable multiplated mollusks appeared during the latest Late Cambrian (Bergenhayan 1960 Stinchcomb and Darrough 1995). Early Cambrian Triplicatella, previously interpreted as the earliest chiton (Yates et al. 1992), is an operculum (Conway Morris and Peel 1995). The morphology of the Late Cambrian multiplated mol-lusks, probable members of the class Polyplacophora, is the subject of some debate. They may be reconstructed as metamerized sluglike animals bearing about eight mid-dorsal...

Common and Least Weasels

Stickers Printing Sizes

The breeding cycles of least and common weasels are broadly similar. The gestation period is about the same 34 to 37 days both have direct implantation young females of both subspecies can breed in the summer of their birth when conditions permit Sundell 2003 and the length of the breeding season is very variable Figure 9.4A . In Europe, male common weasels can have enlarged testes and are fecund from February until at least early August, occasionally to the beginning of October. The testes...

The Pattern and Timing of the Molt

Weasel Seasonal Cycle

A complete molt cycle lasts from the beginning of the active phase of the follicles to the end of the shedding of the old fur. Since these are quite separate processes, even in one follicle, the cycles of growth and shedding can overlap. The biology of weasels offers two quite different methods of working out the timing and length of the cycle, depending on the species and location. In places where weasels reliably turn white in winter, the simplest technique is to arrange a set of skins...

A classification of survivorship curves


Life tables provide a great deal of data on specific organisms. But ecologists search for generalities patterns of life and death that we can see repeated in the lives of many species. A useful set of survivorship curves was developed long ago by Pearl (1928) whose three types generalize what we know about the way in which the risks of death are distributed through the lives of different organisms (Figure 4.8). Type I describes the situation in which mortality is concentrated toward the end of...

Top 5 Car Companies That are Helping the Environment

I am not exactly fond of cars or driving, but many people around the world are. These days, it's become more common for a car company to push out lines of hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, or some other form of green transportation. While this step is nice and all, it made me wonder what else are all the car companies doing to help the environment If you were to consider everything that goes into putting a car on the road from mining and drilling for resources to fuel and build the car, to...

BottomUp Forces

A major theme of this article is the contrary actions of bottom-up and top-down forces in food webs and chains. The former are fundamental and the backbone of all ecological nature matter and energy are transferred from the bottom up, to consumers from producers, in every web and chain. The decomposition of Polonius in Act IV, Scene III of Shakespeare's Hamlet is a classical example of this bottom-up foundation King Claudius Now, Hamlet, where's Polonius Hamlet Not where he eats, but where he...

Natural succession on abandoned farmland

Abandon Farmland Succession

If we leave abandoned farmland alone, what sort of community will develop on it Will it become something like the natural community that would have occurred on the site If so, how long will that take Various sorts of vegetation can develop, including forest, open woodland, grassland and heathland. Here I consider only forest and grassland. In this chapter we are concerned with the establishment of forest on farmland, where trees have been absent for some years. If, on the contrary, after forest...

M J Kingsford E Wolanski

The coral reefs that form the GBR are scattered over the continental shelf, which is shallow and fringed by the deep water of the Coral Sea Fig. 4.1 . Oceanography affects in many ways the organisms and the nature of contemporary geological processes. Seawater erodes and shapes reefs it influences the transport of sediment and the deposition of material to the substratum. Organisms of all sizes are affected by oceanography. The storm generated seas of cyclones destroy reef structures, kill...

Wildlife harvesting

19.1 Introduction In this chapter we consider how to estimate an appropriate offtake for a wildlife population. It differs according to whether the population is increasing or whether it is stable, and whether or not the environment fluctuates from year to year. Wildlife is harvested for many different purposes. Sport hunting usually takes a sample of the population during a restricted season and often with a restriction placed on the sex and age of the harvest. Harvesting for sport is a...

Exploitation of two resources

Tilman 1982, 1986 see also Section 3.8 has also considered what happens when two competitors compete for two resources. Beginning with intraspecific the need to consider resource dynamics a model for two resources - the zero net isocline a niche boundary Figure 8.32 The results of competition experiments in which Agrostis scabra black lines was competitively displaced by a Schizachyrium scoparium, b Andropogon gerardi and c Agropyron repens orange lines, at each of two nitrogen levels both low...

What Do Emperor Penguins Eat?

This article will answer the question what do emperor penguins eat both in the wild and in captivity. It will also show you some remarkable facts about this wonderful bird species. sc name adsense The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and biggest of all known species of penguins and is native to Antarctica. Emperor penguins are amazing creatures. They have a white stomach, a black head and black tail, backs and wings.


The Hypsilophodontidae was a family of medium-sized ornithopod dinosaurs, somewhat resembling the fabrosaurids outwardly. They did not appear until about the Middle Jurassic, however, so the similarity between the two taxa must have been due to convergent evolution. One of the best known of these small ornithopods, Hypsilophodon (Fig. 111) from Europe and North America, was first described by T.H. Huxley in 1870. Because of the similarity of its shape to that of modern tree kangaroos...

Competition between Paramecium species

Caudatum And Bursaria

The fourth example comes from the classic work of the great Russian ecologist G. F. Gause, who studied competition in laboratory experiments using three species of the protozoan Paramecium (Gause, 1934, 1935). All three species grew well alone, reaching stable carrying capacities in tubes of liquid medium. There, Paramecium consumed bacteria or yeast cells, which themselves lived on regularly replenished oatmeal (Figure 8.3a). When Gause grew P. aurelia and P. caudatum together, P. caudatum...

Defense of Microalgae and Macroalgae

Plankton, consisting of free-floating diatoms, flagellates, and dinoflagellates, comprises the first stage in the food chain of marine organisms. In order to ensure its survival, defensive strategies are required. Besides mechanical barriers, for example, thick silicified cell walls of diatoms and mere mass occurrence, chemical defense plays an important role Figure 1 . Many diatoms react upon attack with the generation of oxylipins see Plant Defense Strategies and the formation of toxic...

Variations in the relationship of productivity to biomass

Npp Open Ocean Ecosystem

We can relate the productivity of a community to the standing crop biomass that produces it the interest rate on the capital . Alternatively, we can think of the standing crop as the biomass that is sustained by the productivity the capital resource that is sustained by earnings . Overall, there is a dramatic difference in the total biomass that exists on land 800 Pg compared to the oceans 2 Pg and fresh water lt 0.1 Pg Geider et al., 2001 . On an areal basis, biomass on land ranges from 0.2 to...

Principles Of Landscape Management

One of the main goals of landscape ecology is to study the structure of the spatial mosaic and its effects on the ecological process. Organisms, energy and resources are distributed patchily in the environment, and this distribution is important for most ecological patterns and processes. Complex mosaics are crossed by organisms, energy, nutrients, water and disturbance processes, and all these elements are influenced by landscape heterogeneity. Landscape ecology studies the complexity created...

Modelling Elements

In its mathematical formulation, a model in environmental sciences has five components. 1. Forcing functions, or external variables, which are functions or variables of an external nature that influence the state of the ecosystem. In a management context the problem to be solved can often be reformulated as follows if certain forcing functions are varied, how will this influence the state of the ecosystem The model is used to predict what will change in the ecosystem when forcing functions are...

Aggressive behaviour

Any system of exclusive home ranges of animals is likely to be based on some kind of aggressive interactions between the inhabitants. This has been demonstrated for simple territories of solitary animals (Sandell 1989), for clan territories of spotted hyenas or badgers (Kruuk 1972, 1989), and for many others. I had expected it also for female group territories of Eurasian otters. However, at least in Eurasian otters in Shetland, such aggressive interactions were remarkably rare, and despite...

What do Pheasants Eat: Read This First Before Feeding Your Pheasant!

This article aims to give you background in raising pheasants as pets. We will focus on the diet aspect of pheasants by answering the question what do pheasants eat. We will also discuss basic information about pheasants such as What are pheasants What do pheasants eat in the wild How do I start raising pheasants from chicks What should I feed my pet pheasants What are pheasants Pheasants are game birds that are closely related to chicken, partridges, and quails.

What Do Beetles Eat? Learn How The Beetle Types Feed

To describe beetles on a very artistic manner, you would probably go with the biggest insect in a shining armor'. Often seen in trees and shrubs, beetles come with apples and persimmons when we try to reap such fruits. As we have all seen, and most probably touched, these insects are distinctively known to have such exoskeleton, or bones which will serve as a framework of their body- but just on the outside. Like any other insects, beetles have the usual body parts.

What Do Plankton Eat?

We journey through the world's oceans to discover what do plankton eat. Planktons are small and microscopic organisms that live in fresh or sea water. Plankton isn't a species, it's the name for a large group of organisms that live in the waters of the world such as krill, jellyfish and the eggs and larvae of larger animals. Even sea salp colonies which can grow up to ten meters in length are considered plankton. However, most of the plankton in the ocean can be categorized as plants.

What Do Sea Urchins Eat?

While more and more people keep sea urchins as pets at home, you might be searching what food do sea urchins eat. Sea urchin feeds on everything that floats around it. They primarily feed on algae attached to coral and rocks, but they also grind and eat plankton, kelp, and periwinkle. They also consume dead fish, mussels, sponges, and barnacles. Let's learn more about sea urchin's feeding behavior in their natural habitat.

What Do Bengal Tigers Eat?

Do you know the answer to the question what do Bengal tigers eat This article aims to discuss the Bengal tiger's diet and the way this species hunt its food in the wild. The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most common kind of tiger and is probably what most people refer to when they say tiger because they are the most populous of tigers. The Bengal tiger is generally characterized by a yellow to light orange coat with stripes of brown or black.

What Do Woodpeckers Eat?

Woodpeckers are part of the Picidae family of birds. Members of this family are found all over the world, except for Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Madagascar, and the extremely cold polar regions of the planet. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known to live in desert areas, and peck at cactus instead of trees.

Copenhagen Becomes First Scandinavian City with a Mandatory Green Roof Policy

Last year's COP-15 event may have achieved epic fail status, but that's certainly not going to stop the former host city Copenhagen, Denmark from pushing their green standards a bit further. Copenhagen is now the first Scandinavian city to put a mandatory green roof policy into action. The new policy requires vegetation and soil to be a mandatory part in architectural planning in particular, it covers all roofs with a slope less than 30 degrees, plus the refurbishment of older roofs.

The Maximum Power Principle

Measuring For Length Balloon Garland

Lotka (1925, 1956) formulated the maximum power principle. He suggested that systems prevail that develop designs that maximize the flow of useful (for maintenance and growth) energy, and Odum used this principle to explain much about the structure and processes of ecosystems (Odum and Pinkerton, 1955). Boltzmann (1905) said that the struggle for existence is a struggle for free energy available for work, which is a definition very close to the maximum exergy principle introduced in the next...

What Do Crawfish Eat?

What do crawfish eat Let's learn the food types that this favorite sea food eats before we eat them. Crawfish, also called crayfish, freshwater lobsters, crawdads, yabbies, mudbugs or mountain lobsters are freshwater crustaceans that are similar to small lobsters, in which they have some relation. Just like lobsters, they have pincers and are colored brown, gray and red. They are members of the family Parastacoidea and family Astacoidea. Crawfish breathe through feather-like gills.

Types Of Wooden Cladding

Alder Contemporary Cladding

Exterior horizontal panelling is the best choice in exposed coastal areas (Figure 15.23). Driving rain runs off more easily and has difficulty getting behind the isfacing outwards. When mounting the panelling, the best quality boarding should be furthest down, where the panels are exposed to most water and to splashing from the ground. Exterior vertical panelling. Driving rain can penetrate vertical cladding easily so this type of cladding is more suited to inland buildings. It is an advantage...

Wild Parakeets Invade Brussels

More and more green parakeets are being in the parks of Brussels. Their number is currently estimated at about 12,000. There are three species of nesting parakeets collared parakeets, Alexander parakeets and monk parakeets. The first two species are often mixed up as they look very much alike. Recently, they have been gathering every evening in big dormitories located in Brussels' Elizabeth Park and another park near NATO headquarters.

Lingkungan Hidup Brachiopoda


Table III The Silurian ecogroups and chief animal communities and their evolution with time Table III The Silurian ecogroups and chief animal communities and their evolution with time low. A few species change from one habitat to another with time, but the great majority of Silurian brachiopod lineages remain in the same habitat throughout the period. The succession of communities in one habitat with component genera changing through time must be distinguished from a single community where the...

Alkaloid Biosynthetic Pathways

Alkaloid Biosynthesis

BA biosynthesis begins with the conversion of tyrosine to both dopamine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde by a lattice of decarboxylations, ori io-hydroxylations, and deaminations.1 The aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (TYDC) that converts tyrosine and dopa to their corresponding amines has been purified, and several Figure 7.1 Plant-derived alkaloids with important phamacological activities. Figure 7.1 Plant-derived alkaloids with important phamacological activities. cDNAs have been cloned...

The Mechanism of Winter Whitening

At landscape scale, there is a general relationship between cold winters and snow cover the further north the latitude or the higher the elevation is, the greater the chances are that a regular covering of snow every winter can be expected. Likewise, there is also a general connection between whitening in the landscape and in weasels. In cold climates the autumn temperatures plunge quickly, and all northern weasels always turn entirely white. The processes setting off the autumn molt, initiated...

Energy Storage and Expenditure

Agrp Satiety Center

The snow creaks under our winter boots as we walk along the snow scooter track to our study site. The cold is overwhelming, and though we have been walking for an hour, we do not feel warm. The air is perfectly still, and the heavy snow on the branches of the surrounding conifers absorbs all sounds. When we arrive at the bait station, we spill some seeds onto the feeding tray and retire to the nearby trees. The seeds soon attract the attention of some willow tits. It is astonishing that these...

What Do Komodo Dragons Eat?

This article aims to answer the question what do komodo dragons eat. We will also discuss important informations regarding the Komodo dragon diet. Heavy, strong and deadly, the Komodo dragon has been a subject for fascination among scientists. They're so notorious they remind us of a mythical creature the dragon. And that's probably the reason why we call them dragons. These large lizards dominate their ecosystems with their ferocity and appetite.

What do Cougars Eat?

A cougar is a North American sandy colored puma. They are sometimes known as Mountain Lions. Cougars are mostly nocturnal animals, searching for food and hunting during the night, although they have been known to move around in the daytime too. They are solitary animals, that spend much of their lives on their own. What do cougars eat in the wild What do cougars eat are generally grazing creatures such as deer, elk, mountain goats, moose, and wild sheep.

What Do Animals Eat?

What Do Anteaters Eat Sure it is easy to assume that anteaters only eat ants because their name implies so. This, however, is not the case. So, what do anteaters eat aside from ants Before we figure out the answer to this question, let's talk some more about what anteaters are. Anteaters, also called antbears, are animals belonging to four species of mammals of the order Vermilingua. The four species are the silky anteater, the giant anteater, the Southern Tamandua and the Northern Tamandua.

The Oily Water Sewer

This system collects all non-corrosive process waste periodically drained from tanks, towers, exchangers, pumps, and other process equipment using open-end drain hubs located adjacent to the equipment. During maintenance shutdowns and at turnarounds, these drain hubs drain water from equipment for hydrostatic testing or washing out towers or tanks. Pumps and compressors should also have open-end drain hubs located at the ends of foundation blocks. These open-end drain hubs collect drainage from...

What Do Dragonflies Eat?

In this article, we will discuss the type of food that dragonflies in its natural habitat. What are dragonflies There are over 5,000 species of dragonflies. Dragonflies are insects that belong to the order Odonata, which means toothed one . This is because dragonflies have sharp serrated teeth. They are further categorized into the group, or clade, known as Anisoptera. This comes from the Greek words anisos pteron , which translates as uneven wing .

The Skeleton

Everything about a weasel is attuned to the profession of hunting for small prey in dark, confined spaces. In motion, weasels appear almost boneless. We have seen weasels leap into a hole and then look out again in a single, fluid action so fast that the tail was not in before the nose came out again. A weasel can do this because the articulations between its vertebrae are so flexible that it can turn over and walk back over its own hindquarters. Living and working in tunnels are normal and...

Indirect Effects Of Exploitation

Unlike a nonliving resource, the genetic makeup of prey species will respond to exploitation through evolution, resulting in defensive adaptations. Defenses from exploitation can take a variety of forms, including behavioral, morphological, or biochemical defenses. Evolution can also result in the development of new attack strategies in consumers, resulting in a continual coevolutionary arms race between consumers and their prey.

From Birth to the Opening of the Eyes

Body Part Upper Forearm Name

Infant weasels look rather alike in all species, both in their appearance at birth and in their early physical development. They are all born completely helpless, and all grow in the same way, but least and common weasels develop more rapidly than do stoats and longtails, and they reach the milestones of development at younger ages Table 9.3 . For example, although young stoats and longtails are born larger than young common weasels, they grow more slowly, and are 6 to 8 weeks old before they...

Fire in Grasslands

Fire Ecology Diagram

It is generally recognized that climate, fire, and grazing are three primary factors that are responsible for the origin, maintenance, and structure of the most extensive natural grasslands. These factors are not always independent (i.e., grazing reduces standing crop biomass which can be viewed simply as a fuel for fire, and biomass is also highly dependent upon the amount of precipitation). Historically, fires were a frequent occurrence in most large grasslands. Most grasslands are not harmed...

Aquatic Cuisine: What Do Lobsters Eat Before We Eat Them?

Think of a steamed lobster with seared mushrooms in front of you, with the tasty combination of thyme and butter. Lobster toast on your other side and Maine Lobster Roll a few inches away from the knife and fork that you are holding. Just the thought of these things makes me hungry. One can never deny the tasty goodness of these aquatic animals.

Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in mutualistic plants

Nodule Meristem Cells Plants

The inability of most plants and animals to fix atmospheric nitrogen is one of the great puzzles in the process of evolution, since nitrogen is in limiting supply in many habitats. However, the ability to fix nitrogen is widely though irregularly distributed amongst both the eubacteria 'true' bacteria and the archaea archaebacteria , and many of these have been caught up in tight mutualisms with systematically quite different groups of eukaryotes. Presumably such symbioses have evolved a number...

Stable Isotope Constraints on Net Ecosystem Production Under Elevated CO2

King, Arvin R. Moser, Jack Morgan, Daniel Milchunas Introduction Approaches for Estimating Net Ecosystem Production Net ecosystem production (NEP) is the total carbon accumulated in an ecosystem over a time interval, usually a year. The C is stored above- and belowground in plants, animals, and soils, and has residence times ranging from less than one to several hundred years or more.

The Ocean Currents Climate and Biosphere

Major Ocean Currents

The Role of the Ocean Currents in the Climate System Modern ocean circulation represents a complex three-dimensional phenomenon which is determined by the Earth's geography and spatial patterns of surface wind, and surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Surface ocean currents are directly driven by wind and the existence of large-scale oceanic gyres Figure 1 is explained by prevailing westerlies in the mid-latitudes and trade winds in the tropics. The divergence of surface wind-driven currents...

Box 81 Some characteristics of oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes

Increasing wastewater, the introduction of phosphorus-containing domestic detergents, increasing use of fertilizers, and increased erosion in the watershed are the major reasons for the increased loading of nutrients. The loading of nitrogen is increased by pollution of the atmosphere with nitrous oxides, where they combine with water vapor and are transported to lakes as precipitation, contributing to increased loading of nitrogen. Fertilization of farmland has its greatest effect...

Intromittent Organs

Cockroach Spermatophore

The need for a secure connection, then, may account for some of the claspers, hooks, and spines in the male's genitalic assemblage but cannot explain the bewildering complexity (Fig. 6.11E) of many components. The similarity of some cockroach structures to those of other, better-studied insects, however, allows us in some cases to make inferences from genitalic design. In particular, brushes and slender, elongate spines, rods, and flagellae, especially those with modified tips, may be sexually...

Ectotherms and endotherms

Population Size Endotherms Ectotherms

Many organisms have a body temperature that differs little, if at all, from their environment. A parasitic worm in the gut of a mammal, a fungal mycelium in the soil and a sponge in the sea acquire the temperature of the medium in which they live. Terrestrial organisms, exposed to the sun and the air, are different because they may acquire heat directly by absorbing solar radiation or be cooled by the latent heat of evaporation of water typical Figure 2.6 Schematic diagram of the avenues of...

Decomposers bacteria and fungi

Hyphomyc Tes

If scavengers do not take a dead resource immediately it dies such as hyenas consuming a dead zebra , the process of decomposition usually starts with colonization by bacteria and fungi. Other changes may occur at the same time enzymes in the dead tissue may start to autolyze it and break down the carbohydrates and proteins into simpler, soluble forms. The dead material may also become leached by rainfall or, in an aquatic environment, may lose minerals and soluble organic compounds as they are...

Factors Affecting Abundance

The upper boundary of abundance (carrying capacity) or abundance in general is controlled by numerous factors however, determining how these factors control populations can be difficult. Internal factors (e.g., interspecific competition for space, food, or light, life-history traits, and cannibalism) can control abundance as can external factors (e.g., environmental conditions). As an organism becomes abundant it can drive down the abundance of the nutrients or energy that they require....

Primary Productivity

Productivity Aquatic Biomes

Primary productivity is the rate of conversion of solar energy into plant matter. The total rate of solar energy conversion into carbohydrates (total photosynthesis) is gross primary productivity (GPP). However, a portion of GPP must be expended by the plant through metabolic processes necessary for maintenance, growth, and reproduction and is lost as heat through respiration. The net rate at which energy is stored as plant matter is net primary productivity. The energy stored in net primary...

Basic Definitions

The water hydrologic cycle Figure 3 depicts transport of water and its conversion in different statuses as it circulates throuth both local and global systems. Water exists in three basic states of aggregation liquid, solid, and gas. Conversion from one state to another is associated with either release or consumption of energy. The water cycle is composed of many components inter connected in a web of complex interactions. Water vapor is able to move fast both...

Industrial Revolution Industrialization

Industrial Revolution Big Smoke

The transformation from an agricultural to an industrial society began only about 250 years ago, but its consequences for the natural world are almost unprecedented. The major innovation that marks the industrial era is the exploitation of the earth's vast stocks of fossil fuel. The availability of more energy per capita has led to undreamed of material wealth for a significant percentage of the world's population, but it has also put tremendous pressure on land and natural resources. The major...

Food chains and food webs

Populations within a community are bound by a network of interactions. The most important interactions are of a trophic nature eat or be eaten . In diagrams predator-prey interactions are usually portrayed vertically and competition relationships horizontally. The simplest presentation of the vertical connections within a community is the food chain. Plants are eaten by herbivorous animals (primary consumers or secondary producers). These animals are in turn eaten by carnivorous animals...

Protect Your Family with the Most Effective Arsenic Water Filters

Arsenic contamination in water is a serious health concern, and finding the best water filter for arsenic removal is essential to ensure safe drinking water. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element, but when present in water, it poses a significant risk to human health. Long-term exposure can lead to a range of serious health problems, including various forms of cancer, skin lesions, cardiovascular diseases, and developmental problems in children.

Elemental Composition of Biomolecules

Elemental Composition Proteins

Variation in elemental composition among organisms can be driven by stoichiometric differences at many levels of internal organization. As outlined below, major classes of biomolecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, protein, and nucleic acids contain different concentrations of C, N, P, and other major elements such as H, O, and S Table 2 . Table 2 Approximate C N P H O S stoichiometry of mass of selected macromolecules and other organic compounds Table 2 Approximate C N P H O S stoichiometry...

Suspension Feeders

Suspension Feeders Animals

B T Hentschel, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA J Shimeta, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. What Is Suspension Feeding Organisms That Suspension Feed Mechanisms of Particle Contact Retaining Contacted Particles Suspension Feeding in More Complicated Flow Regimes Ecological Interactions Related to Suspension Feeding Further Reading Suspension feeding is the capture and ingestion of food particles that are suspended in water....

Furnace That Goes Bang In The Night? Sounds Like Delayed Ignition!

Maryland's fall weather has been enough to give whiplash to many of us in the Minnick's family One day is beautiful, clear, and sunny a week later the weather is gloomy, with cold rain and freezing temperatures. Who knows what your thermostat will be asking your furnace to do from one day to the next Along with the up and downs of temperature can come some mysterious bangs and booms from your furnace especially if there has been a long delay between uses. Those loud noises shouldn't be ignored.

Assumptions of the logistic equation

Gause Barnacles

How much trust can we put in either the traditional logistic equation or the Beverton-Holt equations Is the typical logistic growth curve actually found in biological populations Laboratory studies on growth of protozoan populations such as Paramecium caudatum, yeast, Drosophila, grain beetles and diatoms (Gause 1932, 1934, Vandermeer 1969, Pearl 1927, Crombie 1945, Park et al. 1964, Tilman 1977), do consistently show a logistic growth Figure 2.8 Population growth as a function of N based on...

Why Does My Dog Follow Me Everywhere?

They always want to be around with their owner all the time, but too much can be frustrating. This habit is unhealthy for both you and your dog because it might make you trip over and have a sudden visit to the ER and on your dog's side, he might be masking shadowing a physical or behavioral problem. If you're wondering why does my dog follow me everywhere here are five possible explanations why 1.

Water Uptake in Deserts Animals

Desert Rodents

Vertebrates are able to obtain water from three sources 1 free water, 2 moisture contained in food, and 3 metabolic water formed during the process of cellular respiration. Some are able to receive water from all three sources, while others are able to exploit only one or two methods. Highly mobile animals tend to be restricted to the use of open water sources that are often sparse and far between. Typical examples are desert birds that fly in regular intervals to the few bodies of water...