Energy flow through forest ecosystems

Another way of looking at the dynamics of a forest is to investigate how energy flows through the system. This can give important insight into how a forest works as energy is always limiting and places stringent limits on the number of plants and animals a forest area can support. As discussed in Chapter 1, nutrients are cycled through an ecosystem while energy passes through, entering as sunlight and leaving as heat from respiration. Due to the complexity of forests, there have been few...

Growth forms of modular organisms

A variety of growth forms and architectures produced by modular growth in animals and plants is illustrated in Figure 4.1 (for color, see Plate 4.1, between pp. 000 and 000). Modular organisms may broadly be divided into those that concentrate on vertical growth, and those that spread their modules laterally, over or in a substrate. Many plants produce new root systems associated with a laterally extending stem these are the rhizom-atous and stoloniferous plants. The connections between the...

Brief History of Landscape Ecology

Landscape ecology is a young but well-recognized ecological discipline dealing with the spatial distribution of organisms, patterns, and processes. This discipline developed after the Second World War in central and eastern Europe as an applied science used to manage the countryside. It became popular as a basic science, especially in the US, only during the last two decades. The theoretical and empirical bodies of this discipline are growing fast but not in a unified fashion (Wu and Hobbs...

Microbial Ecology and Environmental Microbiology

The term microbial ecology is now used in a general way to describe the presence and contributions of microorganisms, through their activities, to the places where they are found. Students of microbiology should be aware that much of the information on microbial presence and contributions to soils, waters, and associations with plants, now described by this term, would have been considered as environmental microbiology in the past. Thomas D. Brock, the discoverer of Thermus aquaticus, which is...

Reproductive value

Natural selection favors those individuals that make the greatest proportionate contribution to the future of the population to which they belong. All life history components affect this contribution, ultimately through their effects on fecundity and survival. It is necessary, though, to combine these effects into a single currency so that different life histories may be judged and compared. A number of measures of fitness have been used. All the better ones have made use of both fecundity and...

Food Chains and Food Webs

There are two food chain systems on every planet the grazing food chain and the detrital decomposition food chain. Autotrophs and magiotrophs form the foundation of every food chain because they're the creatures that don't require organic material to create life. Contrary to appearances, the detrital chain has the most energy going through it at any one time. Only deep-water aquatic systems with their characteristic low biomass, rapid turnover of organisms, and high rate of harvest have more...

Fast and Slow Life Histories Observed patterns

According to the concept of fast and slow life histories, species with fast slow life histories have certain life-history characteristics that are similar to those of r-strategists K-strategists in the r K concept Table 2 . In contrast to the r K concept, however, fast and slow life histories are primarily observed patterns and not necessarily connected to an explanation. Table 2 Life histories of species on the fast-slow continuum with body size included Table 2 Life histories of species on...

Evenness or Equitability

Three measures of diversity that have been widely used in ecology are Simpson's index, Shannon's entropy, and the total number of species or species richness. Some species diversity indices are based on the concept of evenness or equitability. Simply put, the concept of evenness refers to the extent to which each species is represented among the sample. The extremes would range from one species being dominant and all other species being present in very low numbers (one individual for each...

Natural selection

In the previous sections we have been looking at some of the ways in which non-adaptive processes can affect the genetic variation of populations. Genetic diversity is affected also by natural selection, a process that leads to 'the differential reproduction of genetically distinct individuals or genotypes within a population' (Li, 1997). Natural selection can alter allele frequencies in a number of different ways that can either increase or decrease overall genetic variation. Both stabilizing...

Empirical Generalization Method

There are two components in Vernadsky's concept of the biosphere. The first is the proper biosphere concept, which can be called a verbal model of the biosphere. The second component is the method of study of such a complex system as the biosphere, which he called the 'empirical generalization method' (EGM). Vernadsky opposes the reliance on mere hypotheses, repeatedly insisting that the better suited method for a scientist is the Baconian system of accumulation of facts, as the generalizations...

Maintenance of Homeostasis in Ecological Systems

Homeostasis is maintained through negative feedbacks. As changes in the environment push a system property from its equilibrium, negative feedbacks counteract the Figure 1 Changes in environment can have large effects or almost no effect on system properties, depending on the operation of homeostatic mechanisms. The top panel shows a hypothetical change in environment through time. The panel starts at zero change in the environment then exhibits a strong shift away and return to average...

Gene flow and genetic drift

In the absence of gene flow, conspecific populations will generally diverge from one another as a result of genetic drift. However, very little gene flow is necessary to reduce the rate of genetic drift and thereby prevent substantial population subdivision. Consider once more the relationship between gene flow and population differentiation (FST). Earlier in this chapter we learned that when populations are in equilibrium, FSt l (4Nem + 1). From this equation we can see that although...

Orca Lolita: A Family Reunion After 40 Years In Captivity?

The current and future owners of the famous Miami Seaquarium certainly make a big profit from marine mammal shows, but for that they have to endure the continuous barrage of criticism from animal rights activists and animal welfare organizations. Lolita, the female orca of the Miami Seaquarium is spending her fifth decade in captivity. Yet, she speaks the language of her species, and she is still capable of returning to her original whale pod if and when the opportunity arrives.

What Do Koalas Eat? Facts About The Koala Bear And More!

This article aims to cover important koala questions, such as What do koalas eat What do koalas look like What do baby koalas eat Do koalas eat bamboo What do koalas drink Where do koalas live We have also listed some amazing koala facts that you might haven't heard of yet so keep reading Before we answer the question about koala's diet, let's begin with some basic information about this cuddly animal.

Food Chain in the Forest

The first hydrothermal vent community discovered was found along the Gal pagos rift zone. A rift zone forms where two plates of Earth's crust are spreading apart. In your Science Journal, describe the energy source that heats the water in the hydrothermal vents of the Gal pagos rift zone. In this food chain, grasses are producers, marmots are herbivores that eat the grasses, and grizzly bears are consumers that eat marmots.

Microcosmic Micronesia: The Pacific island nation of Nauru is a lesson in doing the wrong thing

The story of Nauru, the world's smallest island nation, is both tragic and incredible. It is a story of phosphate fertilizer, environmental catastrophe, failed investment, lost and stolen assets, money laundering, shady international dealings and the War on Terror. In just a few decades Nauru went from rags to riches and back to rags again, a journey which left their environment, industry, infrastructure and economy in tatters.

What Do Arctic Wolves Eat?

Let us answer the question what do arctic wolves eat and discuss some interesting facts about this rare wolf species diet. The Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus arctos), referred to as the Polar Wolf or White Wolf, is a mammal of family Canidae and a subspecies of the Grey Wolf. They can usually be found in the Canadian Arctic and also the northern regions of Greenland.

Four types of factor affecting species richness

There are a number of factors to which the species richness of a community can be related, and these are of several different types. First, there are factors that can be referred to broadly as 'geographic', notably latitude, altitude and, in aquatic environments, depth. These have often been correlated with species richness, as we shall discuss below, but presumably they cannot be causal agents in their own right. If species richness changes with latitude, then there must be some other factor...

Mechanisms Of Sound Production

As Henry (Chapter 10) emphasises here, insects are preadapted to be noisy animals. With a hard and sclerotised exoskeleton, the segmented form of the body and jointed limbs will inevitably cause vibrations in the surrounding environment when an insect moves. It will be very difficult for insects to move silently without making a noise. It is not surprising that many groups have developed specialised systems of sound production and associated receptors which are used in communication within and...

Range Of Habitats

Cockroaches are found in a continuum of dark, humid, poorly ventilated, and often cramped spaces either continuously or when sheltering during their non-active period. Although certain species may be associated with a particular crevice type like the voids beneath rocks or the space beneath loose bark, others are commonly found in more than one of these habitat subdivisions. Many species exploit the interconnectivity of dark, enclosed spaces wherever there is suitable food and moisture, and a...

Management of elephants in captivity

Elephant Life Span Captivity

There are fewer than 1,000 African elephants in captivity, most of them in Western zoos. These constitute only a tiny fraction of the total population of Loxodonta, estimated at under 500,000 thus, the sustainable management of the captive stocks is not of immediate concern. The IUCN SSC African Elephant Specialist Group has also indicated that this is not a priority issue for the conservation of the species. On the other hand, about one-third of all Asian elephants are held captive, mostly in...

Plant Nutrient Synchory

The great number of different means of transport for propagules requires a structured overview of the vectors and mechanisms. Three large groups are distinguished autochory, where the plant itself carries out the dispersal of its propagules, allochory, where the plant exploits different means of transport (vectors), atelochory, where dispersal is inhibited Plants have evolved many mechanisms which ensure distribution in different ways. In the simplest form of autochory, barochory, propagules...

The Distribution of Primary Production in Different Ecosystems

Coral World Distribution

The Earth's annual NPP on land is estimated at 59 and the remaining 41 occurs in oceans and other aquatic systems. While estuaries, swamps and marshes, and tropical rainforests are highly productive, open ocean, tundra (arctic and alpine grasslands), and deserts are the least productive. Consequently we could conclude that to feed our hungry millions we should harvest plants in estuaries, swamps and marshes, or clear tropical forests and plant crops. However the grasses in estuaries, swamps,...

Ecological Significance of Benzene

With the exception of accidental spillage of petroleum products, the routine levels of environmental benzene exposure are not generally associated with risk to fish and wildlife. Reasons for a reduced concern of the environmental risk of benzene include (1) the lack of evidence for bioaccumulation of benzene, (2) the low potential for persistence due to its high volatility from surface waters and soil, and (3) the rapid photooxidation of airborne benzene and its biodegradation in soil and...

What Do Snapping Turtles Eat?

This article is all about the diet snapping turtles eat in the wild and captivity as pets as an answer to the common question what do snapping turtles eat. You will also learn the basics of caring for snapping turtles as pets at home. What do snapping turtles eat Snapping turtles eat both plants and animal meat because they are omnivorous.

Medicine The Benefits of Biodiversity to

Biodiversity is essential to the maintenance of human health. Extracts from many species of plants and, to a lesser extent, animals are critical to treating infections, disease, and other illnesses. According to the World Health Organization, about 80 percent of people in the developing world still depend primarily on traditional medicine, and 85 percent of that medicine is derived from plants (Farnsworth et al. 1985). Biodiversity plays a central role in Western medicine also 57 percent of the...

What Do Panthers Eat?

A black panther is not a species in its own right the name black panther is an umbrella term that refers to any big cat with a black coat. When a big cat is completely black, it is called melanism'. Melanism is the opposite of albinism. Black Panthers in Asia and Africa are actually leopards, whilst black panthers in the Americas are, in fact, Jaguars.

What Do Emperor Penguins Eat?

This article will answer the question what do emperor penguins eat both in the wild and in captivity. It will also show you some remarkable facts about this wonderful bird species. sc name adsense The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and biggest of all known species of penguins and is native to Antarctica. Emperor penguins are amazing creatures. They have a white stomach, a black head and black tail, backs and wings.

Nematode Feeding Habits

Feeding Habits Nematodes

Nematodes feed on a wide range of foods. A general trophic grouping is bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, plant feeders, and predators and omnivores. For the purposes of our overview, one can use anterior (stomal or mouth) structures to differentiate feeding, or trophic, groups (Fig. 7.5) (Yeates and Coleman, 1982 Yeates et al., 1993). Plant-feeding nematodes have a hollow stylet that pierces cell walls of higher plants. Some species are facultative, feeding occasionally on plant roots or root...

What are the Sources of Indoor Air Pollution?

Indoor air pollution is one of the leading causes of health issues in the Indian sub-continent. The deteriorating air quality inside homes is mostly affecting women and children as they spend most of their time indoors. In urban city centres, the problem is made severe by pollutants from vehicular exhaust and industrial emissions. These hazardous particles can stay indoors for long periods of time without getting noticed.


Extraction Organisms Soils Images

Large numbers of the microarthropod group (mainly mites and collembolans) are found in most types of soils. A square meter of forest floor may contain hundreds of thousands of individuals representing thousands of different species (Fig. 4.11). Microarthropods have a significant impact on the decomposition processes in the forest floor (see Chapter 5) and are important reservoirs of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Microarthropods also form an important set of linkages in food webs. Many...

Scent Communication

History Scent Impacting Communication

Weasels are solitary animals for most of the year, but that does not mean that they are totally nonsociable. Weasels must be well aware of their neighbors, even if only to avoid them. They keep in touch with each other by a well-developed system of scent communication an efficient mechanism for small animals living on large home ranges covered with thick vegetation. Even under snow, the conditions are good for scent communication cool, dark, humid, still, and quiet and odor signals last well,...

What Do Crawfish Eat?

What do crawfish eat Let's learn the food types that this favorite sea food eats before we eat them. Crawfish, also called crayfish, freshwater lobsters, crawdads, yabbies, mudbugs or mountain lobsters are freshwater crustaceans that are similar to small lobsters, in which they have some relation. Just like lobsters, they have pincers and are colored brown, gray and red. They are members of the family Parastacoidea and family Astacoidea. Crawfish breathe through feather-like gills.

What Do Arctic Foxes Eat?

What do arctic foxes eat The Arctic fox, sometimes known as the snow fox, polar fox or white fox, are both hunters and opportunistic feeders. This article aims to discuss information regarding the arctic foxes diet in detail. What do arctic foxes eat Arctic foxes are predators so they hunt small rodents such as lemmings. Arctic foxes also eat insects, birds, eggs, and fish.

What Do Gorillas Eat? Feeding Habits Of A Gorilla

As far as population genetics is concerned, gorillas are considered by scientists as one of the few species of great apes that are closely related to humans. What are great apes by the way What are their differences with monkeys Great apes are monkey relatives but they differ in size, posture, the presence of tails and size of brains. Great apes which include gorillas are larger in size. They are able to walk upright for hours.

Adaptation of Alien Species to New Environments

Alien species show diverse patterns of evolutionary adaptability when they arrive in new geographical regions. Each has a particular pattern of genetic variability that influences its potential for evolutionary change. In some cases, variability may be very limited due to the small number of individuals in the founding population. Genetic drift in small initial populations may further reduce variability by genetic bottlenecking. The genetic composition of a new population may be a biased sample...

From Birth to the Opening of the Eyes

Body Part Upper Forearm Name

Infant weasels look rather alike in all species, both in their appearance at birth and in their early physical development. They are all born completely helpless, and all grow in the same way, but least and common weasels develop more rapidly than do stoats and longtails, and they reach the milestones of development at younger ages Table 9.3 . For example, although young stoats and longtails are born larger than young common weasels, they grow more slowly, and are 6 to 8 weeks old before they...

What do Peacocks Eat in the Wild and as Pets?

Because of its fascinating appearance, peacocks have been widely domesticated as pets. People are amazed when a peacock (male bird) begins to walk around and display its magnificent tail feathers. Peacock belongs to the pheasant family. Just like their cousins, peacocks also have a diverse and interesting diet. Naturally, peacocks are considered as ground eaters and will eat smaller animals that they might find along the way.

Enforcement of Conservation Laws

There are two domestic laws in the DRC that protect bonobos and other wildlife 1) Ordonnance- loi n 69- 041 du 22 ao t 1969 relative la conservation de la nature (Law number 69-041 of the 22nd of August 1969 with reference to the conservation of nature) which was passed in 1969 and states that the natural heritage of Congo must be protected. 2) loi 82- 002 du 28 mai 1982 portant r glementation de la chasse (Law 82-002 of the 28th of May 1982 with reference to hunting) passed in 1982 which...

What Do Sugar Gliders Eat: Feeding A Pet Sugar Glider

The sugar glider, named scientifically as Petaurus breviceps is a quite popular pet nowadays. Sugar gliders acquired their name because these cute and playful animals love sipping nectar and sweet tree sap in its natural habitat. Because of its minute size and cute appearance, sugar gliders make a popular exotic animal that has been sold and reared as pets.

Mutualisms involving higher plants and fungi

A wide variety of symbiotic associations are formed between higher plants and fungi. A very remarkable group of Ascomycete fungi, the Clavicipitaceae, grow in the tissues of many species of grass and a few species of sedge. The family includes species that are easily recognized as parasites e.g. Claviceps, the ergot fungus, and Epichloe, the choke disease of grasses , others that are clearly mutu-alistic, and a large number where the costs and benefits are uncertain. The fungal mycelia...

Tree morphology

Morphology Tree Rings

Trees have arisen independently in a large number of plant families as a strategy which outgrows other plants in competition for light, and in so doing have evolved a large perennial woody skeleton to display, in a large tree, over half a million leaves. Such a tall structure is also a good platform for displaying flowers to wind or animal pollinators, and the height helps falling seeds to disperse further. These evolutionary trends have resulted in trees being the tallest and largest of all...

Time lags and limit cycles

Time Lag For Logistic Growth

Assumption 4 of the logistic equation, in which populations are assumed to respond immediately to carrying capacity, is highly unlikely for populations with great reproductive potential. In order to explore this possibility, we can introduce a lag time effect into the logistic equation. Using the discrete time form of the logistic (Eqn. 2.1), substituting X for R, and remembering that X er, Equation 2.12 is an equivalent to Equations 2.1 and 2.10c. To introduce time lags, Equation 2.14 is...

History of the ivory trade with special reference to Africa

History Elephant Population

Ivory has been treasured since ancient times for its unique qualities. People of the Gravettian culture of Europe used mammoth ivory during the late Pleisto cene to make bracelets, while those of the Magdalenian culture fashioned it into figurines. In more historical times, native peoples have used elephant ivory to express art in the form of simple carvings or jewels. It is difficult to estimate how much of this ivory came from animals that died naturally as opposed to those deliberately...

Distributions and extreme conditions

For many species, distributions are accounted for not so much by average temperatures as by occasional extremes, especially occasional lethal temperatures that preclude its existence. For instance, injury by frost is probably the single most important factor limiting plant distribution. To take one example the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) is liable to be killed when temperatures remain below freezing for 36 h, but if there is a daily thaw it is under no threat. In Arizona, the northern...

Physiology of the female reproductive cycle

As in other mammals, the reproductive tract in female elephants is composed of a pair of ovaries (located near the kidneys), the Fallopian tubes, a uterus with two cornua or horns, and a chamber that leads into the urogenital passage that opens externally at the vulva. A striking feature of the reproductive system in elephants is the long (nearly 1 m) urogenital canal, a common passage for both the genital and urinary tracts that opens at a position anterior to the hind legs. The clitoris is...

Macrophyte biomass control

Macrophyte biomass control includes measures to restore aquatic plant communities in order to take advantage of the beneficial aspects of plants in lakes, as well as meas ures to control excessive growth that results in conflicts with certain lake uses or to eradicate exotic species. Scientific background. Aquatic macrophytes, especially submerged species, are of significant importance for the food web interactions and environmental quality of lakes, as they affect the interactions between...

Unitary and modular organisms

Duckweed Lifecycle

Our 'ecological fact of life', though, implies by default that all individuals are alike, which is patently false on a number of counts. First, almost all species pass through a number of stages in their life cycle insects metamorphose from eggs to larvae, sometimes to pupae, and then to adults plants pass from seeds to seedlings to photosynthesizing adults and so on. The different stages are likely to be influenced by different factors and to have different rates of migration, death and of...

Top Interesting Facts About The One-horned Rhino

One-horned Rhinos in kaziranga National park, Photo credit Debabrata Bandyopadhyay Wildlife enthusiasts love to flaunt their knowledge about different species. If you are from the same group or wish to be a part of it, then have a look at the top interesting facts about the one-horned rhinoceros and sharpen your knowledge base. Rhino horn is not a bone but a compacted mass of hairs Keratin is the substance that makes the horn of rhinos.

Types Of Wooden Cladding

Alder Contemporary Cladding

Exterior horizontal panelling is the best choice in exposed coastal areas (Figure 15.23). Driving rain runs off more easily and has difficulty getting behind the isfacing outwards. When mounting the panelling, the best quality boarding should be furthest down, where the panels are exposed to most water and to splashing from the ground. Exterior vertical panelling. Driving rain can penetrate vertical cladding easily so this type of cladding is more suited to inland buildings. It is an advantage...

What do Cougars Eat?

A cougar is a North American sandy colored puma. They are sometimes known as Mountain Lions. Cougars are mostly nocturnal animals, searching for food and hunting during the night, although they have been known to move around in the daytime too. They are solitary animals, that spend much of their lives on their own. What do cougars eat in the wild What do cougars eat are generally grazing creatures such as deer, elk, mountain goats, moose, and wild sheep.

Models of Succession

What Are The Steps Climax Model

Clements (1916) noted that comparison of successional stages is less useful than is understanding of processes affecting the transitions from one sere to another. Nevertheless, few studies have continued over sufficient periods to evaluate the mechanism(s) producing successional transitions. Rather, a number of nonmutually-exclusive models, all of which may affect particular transitions to varying degrees, have been proposed and debated widely (e.g., Connell and Slatyer 1977, H. Horn 1981,...

Five Reasons Why you Should Care about Rising Air Pollution

Air pollution is not even visible to the naked eye, well, mostly it's not, apart from when we see it from a distance. It is the haze that hangs over our city skies. On the ground however, it is hard to tell the difference between polluted air and clean air. And such is human nature that things we know about but cannot see, tend to get pushed down the agenda. The repercussions of human abuse of natural resources during the Age of Industrialisation were a long time coming, and now they are here.

Tusks parasites handicaps and sexual selection

Sexual Selection Within Elephants

The ecological and evolutionary role of tusks in elephants is debatable. Tusks may play a role in obtaining nutrition, such as from debarking of trees. They may be used by males in male-male combat and perhaps even by females (of African elephants) in establishing intrasexual dominance. More important, tusks in male elephants may act as a secondary sexual character that influences female choice of mates. Among Asian elephants, only males may possess tusks thus, there is a distinct possibility...

Desert Flora

Even though the geological record indicates that arid conditions existed for a long time (since the Devonian), the current modern desert flora might have originated in the Miocene, expanded in the Pliocene (after restrictions during moist periods in the Cretaceous and Tertiary), and reached its current distribution only during the Pleistocene. Specifically, the deserts in the North American Southwest are relatively young. Overall richness and uniqueness of desert floras reflect size, age, and...

Non-Electric Water Distiller for Daily Uses and Emergency

This unique water distiller which is designed to consistently and effectively provide pure, steam distilled water. This unit can be used when electric is not available. This is an excellent way to get pure distilled water when camping, boating, fishing or hunting. It is also used by survivalist and in natural disaster and emergency situations.

Intraspecific Variation

Norway spruce exhibits considerable intraspecific variation. The number of described variants in morphology and physiology is the largest among the spruce species. There are about 140 known varieties and forms (cultivars) in addition to described wild types, which differ in cone dimensions or cone scale shape. 3.2.1. Norway spruce and Siberian spruce One of the most important issues in Picea abies taxonomy is the relationship between Norway spruce and Siberian spruce. In 1833 LEDEBOUR described...

What Do Sea Urchins Eat?

While more and more people keep sea urchins as pets at home, you might be searching what food do sea urchins eat. Sea urchin feeds on everything that floats around it. They primarily feed on algae attached to coral and rocks, but they also grind and eat plankton, kelp, and periwinkle. They also consume dead fish, mussels, sponges, and barnacles. Let's learn more about sea urchin's feeding behavior in their natural habitat.

The woodland ecosystem food chains food webs and the plant animal and decomposition subsystems

Food Web Tropical Rainforest

Trees dominate the woodland and forest communities in which they grow but hosts of other organisms - including fungi and bacteria - which evolved in parallel with them, live beside, beneath and in them in an interacting whole. The types of animals involved in such communities are illustrated in Fig. 1.8 in many other parts of the world the major differences from western European forests involve the presence of much larger herbivores and carnivores and of primates such as monkeys and gorillas....

Species Diagnoses

Least Weasel Line Drawing

The general weasel appearance is common to all three species Figures 1.9. and 1.10 . The differences among them hinge mainly on size, color, and reproduction Table 1.1 . Size and color are obvious to the eye, so one might think that they would be easily defined and reliable guides. Most of the early taxonomists based their species descriptions on size and color, often using the standard practice of describing whole species or, at any rate, whole populations from one or a few type specimens. But...

Developing the Mosaic Theory from a Plant Perspective

Open Mosaic Model Ecology

As often happens in the scientific realm theories are developed according to the approaches utilized. This is true in ecology in which the focal entities are plants, animals, virus, bacteria, fungi, or man. By using organisms most of our investigations are devoted to discovering the relationships between the specified entity and the environment. We have much empirical evidence about the relationship between plants and the environmental mosaic as well as between animals and their habitats. The...

Hardy Weinberg equilibrium

Under certain conditions, the genotype frequencies within a given population will follow a predictable pattern. To illustrate this point, we will use the example of the scarlet tiger moth Panaxia dominula. In this species a one locus two allele system generates three alternative wing patterns that vary in the amount of white spotting on the black forewings and in the amount of black marking on the predominantly red hindwings. Since these patterns correspond to homozygous dominant, heterozygous...

Water Uptake in Deserts Animals

Desert Rodents

Vertebrates are able to obtain water from three sources 1 free water, 2 moisture contained in food, and 3 metabolic water formed during the process of cellular respiration. Some are able to receive water from all three sources, while others are able to exploit only one or two methods. Highly mobile animals tend to be restricted to the use of open water sources that are often sparse and far between. Typical examples are desert birds that fly in regular intervals to the few bodies of water...


The Hypsilophodontidae was a family of medium-sized ornithopod dinosaurs, somewhat resembling the fabrosaurids outwardly. They did not appear until about the Middle Jurassic, however, so the similarity between the two taxa must have been due to convergent evolution. One of the best known of these small ornithopods, Hypsilophodon (Fig. 111) from Europe and North America, was first described by T.H. Huxley in 1870. Because of the similarity of its shape to that of modern tree kangaroos...

Mating Behavior In Adults

Mating Behaviour Ecology

Mating is a very vigorous affair in all weasels. It has to be, because the stimulus of copulation is needed before ova can be released. All attempts to stimulate ovulation by injection of gonadotropins, the hormones that usually have this effect in other animals, have failed Rowlands 1972 Gulamhusein amp Thawley 1974 , and the ovaries of unmated females have no corpora lutea. Females are subordinate to males for most of the year, and normally avoid them, but a female is well able to reject...

Bottled Water On The Way Out In SF Restaurants

It seems like it's San Fransisco week here at Greenthinkers. First we tout their banning of plastic grocery bags, and now we have to send kudos out to a few of their high end restaurants. According to the San Fransisco Chronicle, a growing number of sustainably-inclined Bay Area restaurants are ditching bottled water for (free ) tap water. We should hope so, San Fransisco is reported to have amongst the best tap water in the country.

Top Ten Eco-Friendly Reasons to Buy Organic Meat & Dairy

From Care2 comes the top ten eco-friendly reasons to buy organic meat and dairy 1. Free of Antibiotics, Added Hormones, GMO Feed and Other Drugs Animals raised organically are not allowed to be fed antibiotics, the bovine human growth hormone (rbGH), or other artificial drugs. Plus, the animals are raised in a healthier environment, fed organic feed, and often eat a wider range of nutrients than those raised in factory farms. 2.

Solar Thermal Systems

Active solar thermal systems collect radiant heat energy from the sun usually using water or a non-toxic glycol solution, though air is another option. This heat can then be stored for later use, or transferred directly to an existing heating system, be it for hot water or space heating. Glycol Closed Loop Solar Thermal Systems This type of system uses solar panels (also known as solar collectors) that heat a propylene-glycol mixture. This glycol mixture is a non-toxic, food-grade anti-freeze.

BPA-Free: Guyot Designs' Carbon Negative Stainless Steel Water Bottle

BPA Free is a new running Greenthinkers feature where we discuss BPA, link to BPA-related pieces in the news, and also discuss and review all the BPA-free products you can handle. Enjoy your new BPA-free life. Guyot Designs is a holistic company incorporating ideas, lifestyle, culture and individuality. Its core belief is that it's possible and profitable to invent fantastic outdoor products while fostering a corporate culture that focuses on the aspirations of our partners.

RECs and carbon credits are a GOOD thing, so stop bashing them.

RECs and carbon credits are a GOOD thing, so stop bashing them. As an example a few months ago Inside Greentech had an article attacking renewable energy credits, singling out one such purchase by Wells Fargo, and comparing them to the indulgences sold by the Catholic Church to save your soul in the middle ages.

Spring Cleaning: Ecover Natural Toilet Bowl Cleaner

It's belated spring cleaning week around here at Greenthinkers. And since many household cleaning products are pretty darned unhealthy (for us humans and anything else in close proximity or those who live at the end of our sewers and drains) we suggest you follow your nose to cleaners made with naturally scented essential oils. First up, Ecover Natural Toilet Bowl Cleaner. This germ killing vinegar blend removes deposits, while eucalyptus and pine oils freshen your bathroom.

Solar-Powered Overhead Projector Will Help Teach Reading

This is a great example of using green-technology to do good. A solar-powered overhead projector will help teach reading in poor, rural African and Asian communities without electricity, the non-profit group that invented it said.The kinkajou projects text and images on a wall. It has been tested successfully in 45 villages in Mali and organizers hope to introduce the projector in India and Bangladesh, according to Design that Matters (DtM), a non-profit group associated with the Massachusetts...

Homemade Wind Turbine Very Popular

The homemade wind turbine or diy (do it yourself) wind turbine has become very popular as the number of large industrial sized wind turbines as spread across the country. A homemade wind turbine comes in one of two basic formats horizontal axis wind turbine hawt, or vertical axis wind turbine vawt. The hawt is more popular and can generally produce more power or electricity.

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine VAWT Designs

There are a number of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) videos and designs on the internet. We have sorted through quite a few and will present here, some of the better ideas for the do it yourself (diy) handyman who is interested in building their own turbine. If you are more inclined to purchase off the shelf, keep in mind our comments regarding the total power you can expect to achieve at your home.

World's Biggest Solar Energy Power Station

According to Guardian Unlimited, a plan to build the world's biggest solar energy power station, covering about 250 hectares and capable of sustaining 130,000 households, has been unveiled in Portugal. The park would be visible from space, according to a spokesman for the owners of the site at an abandoned pyrite mine near the town of Beja, in the southern Alentejo region.

5 Uncommon Uses For Baking Soda

Baking soda is awesome, we all know that. That little box of sodium bicarbonate can do so much good in such an environmentally sensitive way. It cleans in a surface and food-safe way and does a bang up job cleaning out the bathroom sink pipes too. But what of its less heralded uses Let's list a few. It's a burn treatment For sunburn, windburn and other minor burns, saturate a washcloth in a solution of four tablespoons of baking soda and one litre of water and apply to the affected area.

Eco Easter - make your egg hunt environmentaly friendly

This Easter, forget about the store bought baskets and super sweet candy eggs. With a little ingenuity and some family time together, you can have a great egg hunt. Easter Eggs - natural dyesWhat could be better, than colouring your own eggs with the kids. There are several natural dye materials to be found in the kitchen. Your kids will love coloring there own eggs and will get a kick out of the various ways to change the colours.

Evacuated Tube Solar Collector

Evacuated tube solar collectors are very efficient and can achieve very high temperatures. They are however, very expensive compared to flat plate collectors or batch solar collectors. They are well-suited to commercial and industrial heating applications and can be an effective alternative to flat-plate collectors for domestic space heating, especially in areas where it is often cloudy.An evacuated-tube collector contains several rows of glass tubes connected to a header pipe.

Epifaunal Anchored Brachiopods

Brachiopod Ecology

During the Early Cambrian, brachiopods inhabited shallow subtidal environments. The earliest brachiopods (family Cryptotretidae, order Paterinida) occur in the Tom-motian and Atdabanian of the Anabar-Sinsk Basin of the Siberian Platform and the Zavkhan Province of Mongolia. Cryptotretids occurred on calcareous-argillaceous interreefal substrates of shallow warm epicontinental seas, often under high-energy Figure 16.3 A, Dictyonina sp., PIN 4290 206, ventral valve, Middle Cambrian, Marjuman...

Keep Cool Without an Air Conditioner

Here are a number of easy suggestions you can follow, to keep cool without an air conditioner. Several don't need electricity as well. Wet your wrists and other pulse points with cold water . Use a piece of ice wrapped in a face cloth, to continue after the coolness wears off. Constantly cooling off the wrists will also cool off the body. Never use just ice make sure it is wrapped in a towel or something similar.

Samsung's Solar-Powered Phone

The Samsung Blue Earth is a pebble-shaped, solar-powered touchscreen phone. The Blue Earth is free from harmful substances such as beryllium and phthalates, and is made out of recycled water bottles. It's a step beyond this, we guess. On the back of the Samsung Blue Earth, you'll find a solar panel designed to harness the sun's energy and pump it into the phone's battery.

How To Save Money By Conserving Hot Water

Heating water accounts for 25 of most natural gas bills. But it doesn't have to. You can cut hot-water costs by increasing your heater's efficiency and reducing wasted water. And getting back to the heart of why Greenthinkers exists in the first place, let's look at some tips to show you how Save with Your Water Heater Insulate at least the first 2 metres (6 feet) of the hot water pipe and 1 metre (3 feet) of the cold water pipe leading from your hot water tank.

Germany Goes Renewable

According to new policies, all new homes built in Germany after January 1st 2009 will be required to install renewable energy heating systems under a new law called the Renewable Energies Heating Law. Homeowners will have to use renewable energy sources to meet 14 of a household's total energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water. This is exciting stuff.

Wind Turbine Furling

You worked hard building your DIY wind turbine and now you look forward to days when the wind blows hard. The power output increases as a CUBE of the increase in wind velocity - a 3 fold increase in wind speed means a 9 fold increase in power output. Problem is, your DIY wind turbine won't survive very many of those extreme wind days. You need a way to protect your wind turbine from high wind damage, while allowing it to still produce power at the top end of it's output curve.

Trucker Bombs

Otherwise known as a pee torpedoe.Huh Confused OK, let me explain. A trucker bomb aka pee torpedoe is a bottle of urine that is thrown out of a moving truck (vehicle).That's right, projectile urine.Apparently, this is a major problem in some US States where thousands of bottles of urine are routinely tossed out of moving trucks. And this happens more than you might want to imagine.

Top 5 Compost Tools: Bokashi!

We're trying our best to not mention composting toilets in this particular top 5 (they're so great, it's hard not to), so let's move along quickly, shall we Next up, the Bokashi Kitchen Composter, a year-round compost system that can be used indoors without the fear of odour issues. This Japanese-designed system is particularly useful for apartment and condo dwellers that don't have yard or porch space for full-sized composters.

AP: Texas Tops In Wind Energy Production

Spotted amongst the most popular' stories on Yahoo News the other day was the following Texas Tops In Wind Energy Production. Crazy. Who knew But it's true. Long known as a top oil- and natural gas-producing state, Texas has gained new energy acclaim by becoming the nation's top producer of wind energy. According to the piece, Texas generates enough to power 600,000 average-sized homes a year throuygh wind power. That puts Texas slightly ahead of California, the nation's leader since 1981.

VOC in Paint or Stain - Volatile Organic Compounds

The U.S Environmental Protection Agency rates paint among its top five environmental hazards. Indoor air studies have found that the level of volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, present while paint is drying can be in upwards of a 1,000 times higher than levels outdoors. VOCs have been linked with respiratory conditions skin and eye irritations headaches nausea muscle weakness and more serious ailments like liver disease and lung cancer.

Energy Efficiency Myth-Busters

I picked this up at my local Green Drinks meeting in Chicago. I don't know who actually put this list together but it has some helpful tips for all of us Green Thinkers that are concerned about energy loss in our homes. Myth Compact Florescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) are harmful for the environment because they contain mercury.

Highway Wind Turbine Ideas

A couple of wind power-related theories on the go these days have really sparked our interest. For one, a project proposing integrating wind turbines into the barriers between highway lanes that would harness the wind generated by passing cars to create energy, is a really cool idea. And secondly, the idea of roadways being retrofitted with overhead wind turbines that collect energy from quickly-moving cars is also, well, cool.

Team Canada: Made in China

For the 2006 Winter Olympics the Canadian Olympic Committee decided to switch from Roots as the official apparel supplier to HBC. Unfortunately fashion, quality, patrionism and the environment had nothing to do with the switch.The new look is not quite The Bay. It's more Zellers. But, that's just my opinion. And his. And hers I don't think the HBC line is quite as stylish and translatable to basic streetwear as the Roots collection for the U.S team is.

DIY Rain Barrel

Not only is rain water better for your garden plants, flowers, lawn and fish ponds than chlorinated tap water, but by using rain water you also save money. Plus you reduce the water that heads into the local storm sewers, gathering various chemicals and oils along the way. Making a rain barrel is one of the easier and faster do-it-yourself projects that you can perform. A quarter-inch of rain falling on the average home roof can yield a little over 200 gallons of water.

DIY Solar Pool Heater

Solar Pool Covers The cheapest and most effective solar pool heating system is a solar cover or blanket. Using a cover alone, can extend your pool season by 2 months - one at the start and one at the end. A pool cover will directly convert solar radiation into usable heat for your pool - usually raises the temperature about 5 degrees F. for every 12 hours of coverage.

DIY Solar Air Heater

We look at three do it yourself solar thermal air heaters (collectors) and pick the best features from each for what we consider the idea solar air heater. First - Solar Can Air HeaterThis simple small passive solar heater, made from recycled aluminum drink cans, can be used to heat an insulated garage or small room. A larger heater or a number of similar heaters can be used to heat larger spaces, or to heat smaller spaces to a higher temperature.

Do-It-Yourself Wind Turbine Project 4 Foot Wind Turbine

There are several DIY wind turbine science projects on the internet. This project is appropriate for high school level and was originally sourced from http a very good site, maintained by a couple living off-grid. Their site is definitely worth a look. Another good website to visit for wind turbine projects is http though these turbines can be fairly large.

How Much Power Will I Get From A Wind Turbine?

You've checked your power bills for the last 12 months and know how much power you use. Your local power distribution company allows you to Net Meter, so you can produce power and just put it onto the grid, no expensive batteries and charge controllers. But you still haven't answered that burning question How much power will I get from the various sized small wind turbines that are available to me Factors to Consider When Calculating the Power Generated by a Wind Turbine Local Regulations make...

DC Wind Turbine Motors on eBay - BEWARE

DIY Wind Turbines have become very popular items in the past year. We have DIY plans for both horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) on this site. And yes, in the beginning we recommended people take a look on eBay for used DC Motors to use in their DIY Wind Turbines. Ametek DC Motors Unfortunately, as the demand for DC Motors has increased, so has the supply of inappropriate motors. A quick search on eBay for wind turbine motor returns many potential items.

Batch Solar Collector

Sometimes called a bread box system or integral collector storage system , a batch solar collector consists of one or more storage tanks placed inside an insulated box, usually with a glazed glass plate, facing the sun. The storage tank and the solar absorber act as a single unit and use the normal water pressure of your system., Therefore there is no need for other expensive components such as pumps and controllers. A batch collector can be mounted on the ground or on the roof.

Natural Mosquito Repellent

There are natural alternatives to hash, chemical insect repellents made with DEET. Mosquitoes are attracted to the following items Dark Clothing Dressing in light colors will help to keep you cool and will not attract mosquitoes as much as darker clothing. Carbon Dioxide Some people tend to naturally give off more CO2 than others and will naturally attract mosquitoes. Exercise and sitting in the heat will cause you to give off more CO2 as well.

Greenthinker Debate: Real vs. Artificial Christmas Trees

Ah yes, the annual debate between supporters of fake Christmas trees (cutting down juvenile trees, displaying them for two weeks, then throwing them in the garbage is destructive, wasteful, and highly unfriendly to the environment) and real ones (the Christmas-tree business keeps land that would otherwise be developed in trees, plus the fake ones are often made of plastic or vinyl).

Enviro Mighty Mouse?

According to Macsimum News, Apple has been granted a patent for a hybrid low power computer mouse. Basically, this green' mouse will use two different mechanisms to track its movement on your desk - an optical tracking sensor and a new feature, an accelerometer (see the Wiimote). According to Apple, until the late 1990s, most computer mice were opto-mechanical in nature that required a number of moving parts to work in tandem with some form of optical emitters receiving device to provide...

How To Make PVC Wind Turbine Blades

Cutting PVC Blades - makes 8 blades (or 2+ blade sets) and a thin waste strip. Place the 24 Length of PVC pipe and square tubing (or other straight edge) side by side on a flat surface. Push the pipe tight against the tubing and mark the line where they touch. This is Line A. Make a mark near each end of Line A, 23 apart. Tape 3 sheets of A4 paper together, so that they form a long, completely straightpiece of paper.

Recycling For Charities

As we know, electronic waste from pagers, cell phones, PDA's and digital cameras continues to build up and threatens the environment in ways just now being realized. Unfortunately, up until recently, legimate wireless recycling programs have been few and far between. Reminiscent of Freecycle, Recycling for Charities is a non-profit group that encourages you to donate your old, unwanted cell phones PDAs, Palm Pilots and digital cameras to charity, in an effort that benefits the cause of your...

Starbucks Discontinues Its Swiss Water Decaf Blend

Starbucks' Komodo Dragon Decaf Blend is wholly an Asia Pacific coffee deep, full-bodied with a complex flavour that is bold and unanticipated. And as it employs the completely natural, Swiss Water Process this rich, earthy blend is the favourite amongst pregnant coffee drinkers. And it has been discontinued. Starbucks no longer offers a Swiss Water decaf blend. A note from Starbucks Customer Relations Starbucks will no longer be offering our Decaf Komodo Dragon BlendT coffee.

New Home Week: Winterizing Your Home In One Day

This morning I found myself standing in front of my new house watching the first snowfall of the year, wondering what the heck I could do to make the place more efficient in the winter. That's right, I'm talking about winterizing. And it's a good time to think about this as higher heating bills and higher fuel prices are on their way.

In the Field: The Composting Outhouse

On Greenthinkers, we talk about a lot of green products. Well, this is a great example of a green product at work out in the real world.Earlier this week, I reported on Envirolet Buzz about the The Composting Outhouse. A greener take on an old idea.Instead of the old fashioned and dreaded hole in the ground toilet, this outhouse houses an Envirolet waterless composting toilet system.The Envirolet system features a waterless toilet in the bathroom with the composting unit located below.

Home Solar Panels

How to Make Solar PanelsBuilding a solar panel is a fairly simple project, requiring some carpentry, soldering skills and patience. We will list several links to video's, pictures and step-by-step instructions. Note given the present cost (2009) of finished solar panels and the cost of project materials solar cells, solder, flux, tabbing wires, bus wires, glass, etc., it could cost you more money to make your own solar panel, than it would cost to purchase new.

Electric Vehicless - CO2 from Electricity vs Gasoline

If I drive a plug-in electric vehicle, am I not just changing greenhouse gas made from fossil fuel, for greenhouse gas made during electricity production The simple answer is yes, but a whole lot LESS greenhouse gas. And if you use a local renewable source for your electricity, such as solar PV panels on the garage roof, then the greenhouse gas production virtually disappears. But, let's say you plug-in your vehicle to the local utility grid.

Solar Panel Installation

These are general guidelines on installing a home solar (PV) system. You must ensure you follow your local bylaws, building codes and electrical codes. General Steps for a Solar Panel InstallationSelection of Solar Panels and Inverter Layout of Panels on Rooftop Installation of Racking Installation of Solar Panels Fusing, Inverters & Disconnects Selection of Solar Panels and InverterSolar panels come in a variety of physical sizes, power outputs, voltages, etc.